vehicles worldwide are involved in the scandal that has erupted over its rigging of US car emissions tests.
set aside to cover the cost of recalls
potential fines in the U.S. alone
two day drop in VW shares since Monday, resulting in wiping $28.5 billion off the company's value.
vehicles were programmed to emit lower levels of harmful emissions in official tests than on the roads.
loss to Qatar as it holds 17% stake in VW.